Follow the link for more information. 1 by the end of November 2001. Many executives at Enron were indicted for a variety of charges and scandale Forex were later sentenced to prison.
Andersen was found guilty of illegally destroying documents relevant to the SEC investigation, which voided its license to audit public companies and effectively closed the firm. As a consequence of the scandal, new regulations and legislation were enacted to expand the accuracy of financial reporting for public companies. Oxley Act, increased penalties for destroying, altering, or fabricating records in federal investigations or for attempting to defraud shareholders. In an attempt to achieve further growth, Enron pursued a diversification strategy. The company owned and operated a variety of assets including gas pipelines, electricity plants, pulp and paper plants, water plants, and broadband services across the globe.
The corporation also gained additional revenue by trading contracts for the same array of products and services with which it was involved. Enron’s complex financial statements were confusing to shareholders and analysts. The combination of these issues later resulted in the bankruptcy of the company, and the majority of them were perpetuated by the indirect knowledge or direct actions of Lay, Jeffrey Skilling, Andrew Fastow, and other executives such as Rebecca Mark. Enron and other energy suppliers earned profits by providing services such as wholesale trading and risk management in addition to building and maintaining electric power plants, natural gas pipelines, storage, and processing facilities. Enron instead selected to report the entire value of each of its trades as revenue. In Enron’s natural gas business, the accounting had been fairly straightforward: in each time period, the company listed actual costs of supplying the gas and actual revenues received from selling it.
However, when Skilling joined the company, he demanded that the trading business adopt mark-to-market accounting, citing that it would represent “true economic value. For one contract, in July 2000, Enron and Blockbuster Video signed a 20-year agreement to introduce on-demand entertainment to various U. 110 million from the deal, even though analysts questioned the technical viability and market demand of the service. Enron used special purpose entities—limited partnerships or companies created to fulfill a temporary or specific purpose to fund or manage risks associated with specific assets.
The company elected to disclose minimal details on its use of “special purpose entities”. The special purpose entities were used for more than just circumventing accounting conventions. As a result of one violation, Enron’s balance sheet understated its liabilities and overstated its equity, and its earnings were overstated. In autumn 2001, CalPERS and Enron’s arrangement was discovered, which required the discontinuation of Enron’s prior accounting method for Chewco and JEDI.
Whitewing was the name of a special purpose entity used as a financing method by Enron. 500 million by an outside investor, Whitewing Associates L. Two years later, the entity’s arrangement was changed so that it would no longer be consolidated with Enron and be counted on the company’s balance sheet. In 1999, Fastow formulated two limited partnerships: LJM Cayman. Enron’s poorly performing stocks and stakes to improve its financial statements.
LJM 1 and 2 were created solely to serve as the outside equity investor needed for the special purpose entities that were being used by Enron. Enron capitalized the Raptors, and, in a manner similar to the accounting employed when a company issues stock at a public offering, then booked the notes payable issued as assets on its balance sheet while increasing the shareholders’ equity for the same amount. Swaps were established at the time the stock price achieved its maximum. On paper, Enron had a model board of directors comprising predominantly outsiders with significant ownership stakes and a talented audit committee. In its 2000 review of best corporate boards, Chief Executive included Enron among its five best boards.