For a general comercio de divisas of Inca civilization, people and culture, see Andean civilizations. The Inca Empire at its greatest extent ca. 80 – Machu Picchu – Juin 2009 – edit. From 1438 to 1533, the Incas incorporated a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean Mountains, using conquest and peaceful assimilation, among other methods.
The Inca Empire was unique in that it lacked many features associated with civilization in the Old World. The Incas lacked the use of wheeled vehicles. They lacked animals to ride and draft animals that could pull wagons and plows lacked the knowledge of iron and steel Above all, they lacked a system of writing Despite these supposed handicaps, the Incas were still able to construct one of the greatest imperial states in human history. The Inca empire functioned largely without money and without markets. Instead, exchange of goods and services was based on reciprocity between individuals and among individuals, groups, and Inca rulers.
Taxes” consisted of a labour obligation of a person to the Empire. The Inca referred to their empire as Tawantinsuyu, “the four suyu”. The term Inka means “ruler” or “lord” in Quechua and was used to refer to the ruling class or the ruling family. The Incas were a very small percentage of the total population of the empire, probably numbering only 15,000 to 40,000, but ruling a population of around 10 million people.
The Inca Empire was the last chapter of thousands of years of Andean civilizations. The Andean civilization was one of five civilizations in the world deemed by scholars to be “pristine”, that is indigenous and not derivative from other civilizations. The Wari occupied the Cuzco area for about 400 years. Carl Troll has argued that the development of the Inca state in the central Andes was aided by conditions that allows for the elaboration of the staple food chuño. The Inca people were a pastoral tribe in the Cusco area around the 12th century. Incan oral history tells an origin story of three caves. Manco Cápac, First Inca, 1 of 14 Portraits of Inca Kings, Probably mid-18th century.
Ayar Manco carried a magic staff made of the finest gold. Where this staff landed, the people would live. They traveled for a long time. On the way, Ayar Cachi boasted about his strength and power. His siblings tricked him into returning to the cave to get a sacred llama. When he went into the cave, they trapped him inside to get rid of him. Ayar Uchu decided to stay on the top of the cave to look over the Inca people.
The minute he proclaimed that, he turned to stone. They built a shrine around the stone and it became a sacred object. Ayar Auca grew tired of all this and decided to travel alone. Only Ayar Manco and his four sisters remained. The staff sank into the ground. Before they arrived, Mama Ocllo had already borne Ayar Manco a child, Sinchi Roca.
The people who were already living in Cusco fought hard to keep their land, but Mama Huaca was a good fighter. After that, Ayar Manco became known as Manco Cápac, the founder of the Inca. It is said that he and his sisters built the first Inca homes in the valley with their own hands. When the time came, Manco Cápac turned to stone like his brothers before him. His son, Sinchi Roca, became the second emperor of the Inca.
Pachacuti-Cusi Yupanqui, whose name literally meant “earth-shaker”. Pachacuti sent spies to regions he wanted in his empire and they brought to him reports on political organization, military strength and wealth. He then sent messages to their leaders extolling the benefits of joining his empire, offering them presents of luxury goods such as high quality textiles and promising that they would be materially richer as his subjects. Most accepted the rule of the Inca as a fait accompli and acquiesced peacefully. Refusal to accept Inca rule resulted in military conquest.
Following conquest the local rulers were executed. The ruler’s children were brought to Cusco to learn about Inca administration systems, then return to rule their native lands. Traditionally the son of the Inca ruler led the army. Pachacuti’s son Túpac Inca Yupanqui began conquests to the north in 1463 and continued them as Inca ruler after Pachacuti’s death in 1471.