Analýza Forex

Analýza Forex

High-speed rail is emerging in Europe as an increasingly popular and efficient means of transport. The first high-speed rail lines in Europe, built in the 1980s and 1990s, improved travel times on intra-national corridors. Since then, several countries have built extensive high-speed networks, and there are now several cross-border high-speed rail links. In 2007, a consortium of European railway operators, Railteam, emerged to co-ordinate and boost cross-border high-speed analýza Forex travel.

Developing a Trans-European high-speed rail network is a stated goal of the European Union, and most cross-border railway lines receive EU funding. More are expected to be connected in the coming years as Europe invests heavily in tunnels, bridges and other infrastructure and development projects across the continent, many of which are under construction now. Alstom was the first manufacturer to design and deliver a high speed train or HS-Train, which ended up in service with TGV in France. Networks of Major High Speed Rail Operators in Europe, 2018. The first high-speed rail lines and services were built in the 1980s and 1990s as national projects. Countries sought to increase passenger capacity and decrease journey times on inter-city routes within their borders. In the beginning, lines were built through national funding programmes and services were operated by national operators.

Europe was introduced to high-speed rail when the LGV Sud-Est from Paris to Lyon opened in 1981 and TGV started passenger service. Since then, France has continued to build an extensive network, with lines extending in every direction from Paris. The TGV network gradually spread out to other cities, and into other countries such as Switzerland, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, and the UK. Europe have been built to the same speed, voltage and signalling standards.

Britain has a history of high-speed rail, starting with early high-speed steam systems: examples of engines are GWR 3700 Class 3440 City of Truro and the steam-record holder LNER Class A4 4468 Mallard. In the 1970s, British Rail began to explore new technologies for high-speed passenger rail services in the UK. Initial experience with the Advanced Passenger Trains was good. Great Western Main Line and the Midland Main Line, and the production versions vastly reduced journey times on the WCML. Construction on first German high-speed lines began shortly after that of the French LGVs.

1978, which used FS Class E444 3 kV DC locomotives. Italy pioneered the use of the Pendolino tilting train technology. This section will be 39 km long. Construction originally to be completed by 2015, it is open to Brescia since late 2016. ETCS II, the state-of-the-art in railway signalling and safety. Frecciarossa 1000 is the fastest train in the EU. The commercial run of the first ETR1000 is planned for 2014.

The ambitious AVE construction programme aims at connecting with high-speed trains almost all provincial capitals to Madrid in less than 3 hours and to Barcelona within 6 hours. With an initial deadline set for 2020, the program was slowed down by the financial crisis: the two main lines still under construction, the Mediterranean Corridor and the Lisbon Line, are currently expected to be completed by 2022. 25 kV at 50 Hz from overhead wire. The first HSL from Madrid to Seville is equipped with LZB train control system, later lines with ETCS.

Elsewhere in Europe, the success of high-speed services has been due in part to interoperability with existing normal rail lines. Interoperability between the new AVE lines and the older Iberian gauge network presents additional challenges. The first AVE trains to link up with the French standard gauge network began running in December 2013, when direct high-speed rail services between Spain and France were launched for the first time. The total length of lines is higher than 3000 km with long-term plans to expand it up to 7000 km. Three companies have built or will build trains for the Spanish high-speed railway network: Spanish Talgo, French Alstom and German Siemens AG. Bombardier Transportation is a partner in both the Talgo-led and the Siemens-led consortium.